The researchers calculated the data finding and found 297 utterances which comprised of 246 directives utterances or 82,83% of overall data, 45 representative utterances or represented the 15.15% of data, and 6 expressive utterances which covered 2,02%. Key words: pragmatics, discourse, discourse analysis, context, cognition, culture. culture; Discourse analysts may explore the language of science, face-to-face conversations, telephone conversations, whatsapp messages, social network discourse, etc., and when doing so they may look into power relations, the structure of turn-taking, politeness strategies, the linguistic manifestation of racism or sexism, the structure of narrative, the use of persuasive language and numerous other aspects of language in use. Finally, I demonstrate that in some contexts — specifically that of army training and literary drama — impoliteness behaviour is not a marginal activity, and that we need an appropriate descriptive framework in order to account for it. how speakers/writers organize their discourse in order to indicate their intentions, and how hearers/readers interpret what they hear, read or see. This is clearly the case of van Dijk, whose work may be said to have undergone a progressive "integration" of both disciplines. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AND LANGUAGE TEACHERS Shelby J. Barrentine 12. discourse analysis means analyzing language based on the use of context which contains elements of social practice because language is a means of communication between members of the societies or communities. Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis. But human communication and cognitive phenomena, as seen from a functional perspective, form part of dynamical systems which so far and paradoxically, are very difficult to describe in accurate terms: there are many multifaceted interrelated variables to be considered, some of which are very difficult to grasp or control, therefore making any prediction only probabilistic. We could either ask how users 'mean what they say', that is, how they communicate, using language, or how they 'say what they mean', employing the linguistic devices at their disposal to express themselves ( 2008: 9). However, as was pointed out in 3, while Discourse Analysis is basically a general term for a number of techniques and approaches (such as Conversation Analysis, Critical Discourse Analysis, etc.) It studies the meaning of utterances (words, phrases and sentences used for communication) and tries to define the rules that govern their interpretation. В понимании автора прагматика отличается от дискурс-анализа, но в то же время является для него необходимым источником: не имея достаточных знаний прагматики и ее взаимосвязи с дискурс-анализом, невозможно анализировать дискурс (Alba-Juez, 2009:46). Being conscious of the fact that one can learn a great deal about any field by observing what its practitioners do, and precisely because these disciplines are hard to delimit, I also discuss what it is that prag-maticians and discourse analysts actually do. Both claim that the analysis of language in use and in context constitutes their scope of research, which makes it inevitable for us to ask the following question: If Pragmatics is about 'the study of communicative action in all contexts', how does it differ from Discourse Analysis, and why would it be necessary in the first place? ...I see discourse analysis as a research method that can be (and is being) used by scholars with a variety of academic and non-academic affiliations, coming from a variety of disciplines, to answer a variety of questions (Johnstone, 2008: xiii). On the other hand, little work has been done on communicative strategies with the opposite orientation, that of attacking one's interlocutor and causing disharmony. One result is that folder recommendation is more effective than page recommendation.
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